Although the Thevenin’s theorem and Norton’s theorem can be used to solve a given network, yet the circuit approach differs in the following respects:
A Norton’s theorem is converse (opposite) of Thevenin’s theorem in the respect that Norton equivalent circuit uses a current generator instead of the voltage generator and the resistance RN (which is the same as RTH) in parallel with the generator instead of being in series with it.
Thevenin’s theorem is a voltage form of an equivalent circuit whereas Norton’s theorem is a current form of an equivalent circuit.
To Convert Thevenin equivalent circuit into Norton’s equivalent circuit the following step is involved
RN = RTH
IN = ETH ⁄ RTH
The power can be defined as
P = V2 ⁄ R
P = 200 W
V = 220 V
200 = 2202 ⁄ R
R = 242 Ω
An inductor is a device which temporarily stores energy in the form of the magnetic field. It is usually a coil of wire. One of the basic property of the electromagnetism is that when you have current flowing through the wire it creates a small magnetic field around it.
One current first start to flow through the inductor a magnetic field start to expand then after some time magnetic field becomes constant then we have some energy stored in the magnetic field.
Once a constant magnetic field is generated in the Inductor, it will not change any further. As magnetic flux = N x I (Turns x Current), Inductor will draw a constant current to maintain the magnetic field.
Once current stop flowing the magnetic field start to collapse and the magnetic energy turned back into electric energy.
So when the current flowing through an inductor changes, the magnetic field also changes in the inductor and emf (electromotive force) is induced in the inductor as per Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.
According to Lenz’s law, the direction of electromotive force(emf) opposes the change of current that created it. V= -Lx dI/dt (rate of change of current)
So inductor opposes any change of current through them.
Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCI ) or Kirchhoff’s Junction Rule. This law is based on the conservation of charge and may be stated as under:
The algebraic sum of the currents meeting at a junction in an electrical circuit is zero.
An algebraic sum is one in which the sign of the quantity is taken into account. For example, consider four conductors carrying currents I1, I2, I3, & I4 and meeting at point O as shown in Fig
If we take the signs of currents flowing towards point O as positive, then currents flowing away from point O will be assigned negative sign. Thus, applying Kirchhoff’s current law to the junction O we have,
(I1) + ( I2) + (−I3) + (−I4) = 0 or(I1) + ( I2) = (−I3) + (−I4)
i.e., Sum of incoming currents = Sum of outgoing currents.
Therefore, Kirchhoff’s current law may also be stated as under:
The sum of currents flowing towards any junction in an electrical circuit is equal to the sum of currents flowing away from that junction. Kirchhoff’s current law is rightly called the junction rule.
Kirchhoff’s current law is true because electric current is merely the flow of free electrons and they cannot accumulate at any point in the circuit. This is in accordance with the law of conservation of charge. Hence, Kirchhoff’s current law is based on the law of conservation of charge.
When an electric field is applied to a conductor, there occurs a large scale physical movement of free electrons because these are available in large numbers in Conductor.
On the other hand, if an electric field is applied to an insulator, there is hardly any movement of free electrons because these are just not available in an insulator. Plastics, wood, and rubber are examples of good insulators. Pure water is also an insulator. Tap water, however, contains salts that form ions which can move through the liquid, making it a good conductor.
The insulator is also called the dielectric. There are practically no free electrons in the dielectric. The electrons in dielectric normally remain bounds to their respective molecules.
There are some materials, called semiconductors, which are intermediate between conductors and insulators.
Superconducting materials are the materials which conduct electricity without resistance below a certain temperature. Superconductivity is one of the most exciting phenomena in Physics, because of the peculiar nature and the wide application of this phenomenon. This phenomenon of superconductivity was first discovered by a Dutch physicist, H.K. Onnes. Superconducting materials are having very good electrical and magnetic properties. Before the discovery of superconductors, it is believed that the electrical resistivity of the material becomes zero, only at the absolute temperature.