The factor by which, the induced E.M.F gets reduced due to short pitching is called pitch factor or coil span factor denoted by Kc. It is given as
Kc = cosα/2
α = 60°
Kc = cos60/2
Kc = cos30°
Kc = √3/2
The emitter current (IE) of a transistor has two components such as base current (IB) and collector current (IC). The base current (IB) is about 2% of the emitter current (IE), but the collector current (Ia) is about 98% of the emitter current (IE).
∴ IE > IC > IB
IE = IB + IC
Basic logic gates: Basic logic gates are the building blocks of digital circuits that perform logical operations such as AND, OR, and NOT, on the binary inputs. Basic gates are mainly used in the fabrication of digital systems and are called integrated circuits (ICs).
Derived logic gates: Derived logic gates arc those logic gates that perform logical operations on the binary inputs with the help of two or more basic logic gates. A combination of AND, OR, and NOT are called derived gates. NAND, NOR, XOR, and XNOR are such a combination of AND, OR, and NOT gates.
Exclusive OR (XOR) Gate
A gate that identifies the odd number of 1’s in the combination of the inputs is called the XOR gate. It is a functional combination of NOT, AND, and OR gates.