Air friction Damping: An air friction damping device is usually provided with moving iron instruments such as voltmeters and ammeters.
In this device, a light aluminum vane is attached to a spindle as shown in Fig.
and this vane is free to move in a fixed air chamber known as a sector. When the pointer deflects, the vane in the sector also moves. The air in the sector produces friction in the movement of the vane and thus necessary damping torque is obtained.
Eddy Current Damping: It is used in a strong operating field e.g., PMMC (Permanent Magnet Moving Coil instrument) type.
Fluid Friction Damping: Used in high voltage measurement. Used in the vertically mounted instrument. e.g., Electrostatic type instrument.
⇒ The electric potential at a point is defined as the work done in bringing the unit positive charge ( +1C) from infinity to that point. The work done is independent of the path taken. Its unit is Volt (V).
⇒ Potential Difference (pd or V) is a measure of the difference in charge between two points in a conductor. Its unit is Volt (V).
⇒ The difference in charge produced by the battery is stored in the battery as electrical potential energy and is called electromotive force (shortened to emf). Electromotive force is also measured in volts. Its unit is Volt (V).
⇒ Electric flux is a measure of how much the electric field vectors penetrate through a given surface. The SI unit of electric flux is N.m2/C.
Electrical potential, Potential difference, Electromotive force has the same SI unit i.e Volt (V). Hence Electric flux is alike from others.
The most common type of floodlight is the metal-halide lamp, which emits a bright white light (typically 75-100 lumens/Watt). Sodium-vapor lamps are also commonly used for sporting events because they imitate daylight conditions, and colors appear natural.
They have a very high lumen-to-watt ratio (typically 80-140 lumens/Watt), making them a cost-effective choice when certain lux levels must be provided.
Condenser – Condenser is a heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. The exhaust steam from the turbine enters the condenser where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water).