A phase sequence is an order or sequence in which the currents or voltages of different phases attain their maximum values. In a three-phase system, there are only two possible phase sequences: R-Y-B (positive Phase Sequence) and R-B-Y (Negative Phase Sequence).
The excess-3 code for a given decimal number is determined by adding ‘3’ or “0011” to each decimal digit in the given number.
The factor by which, the induced E.M.F gets reduced due to short pitching is called pitch factor or coil span factor denoted by Kc. It is given as
Kc = cosα/2
α = 60°
Kc = cos60/2
Kc = cos30°
Kc = √3/2
The steady direct current distributes itself uniformly over the whole section of a conductor but the alternating current does not distribute uniformly rather than it tends to concentrate near the surface of a conductor. In fact in the AC system, no current flows through the core and the entire current is concentric at the surface regions. This phenomenon is called skin effect.
The skin effect causes the effective resistance of the conductor to increase with the frequency of the current. The skin effect is due to eddy currents set up by the AC current. The skin effect has practical consequences in the design of radiofrequency and microwave circuits and to some extent in AC electrical power transmission and distribution systems.
This type of motor is designed to operate with the start winding and it’s series capacitor permanently connected to the supply. lt has two capacitors connected in parallel in the start winding circuit for starting purposes. The running capacitor is employed to correct the power factor. As a result, this motor has a higher starting torque as well as a higher efficiency. These motors are employed in sizes ranging from 375 W to 7.5 kW. The power factor of these motor is upto 80% to 100%.
A DC motor can be operated from a single-phase AC supply.
The direction of the torque produced by a DC machine is determined by the direction of current flow in the armature conductors and by the polarity of the field.
Torque is developed in a DC machine because the commutator arrangement permits the field and armature currents to remain in phase, thus producing torque in a constant direction.
A similar result can be obtained by using an AC supply, and by connecting the armature and field windings in series.