Atoms or ions with unpaired electrons are attracted to a magnetic field; the more unpaired electrons, the greater is the attraction. Such substances are called paramagnetic. Molecular oxygen is a paramagnetic gas by virtue of its two unpaired electrons.
⇒ The electric potential at a point is defined as the work done in bringing the unit positive charge ( +1C) from infinity to that point. The work done is independent of the path taken. Its unit is Volt (V).
⇒ Potential Difference (pd or V) is a measure of the difference in charge between two points in a conductor. Its unit is Volt (V).
⇒ The difference in charge produced by the battery is stored in the battery as electrical potential energy and is called electromotive force (shortened to emf). Electromotive force is also measured in volts. Its unit is Volt (V).
⇒ Electric flux is a measure of how much the electric field vectors penetrate through a given surface. The SI unit of electric flux is N.m2/C.
Electrical potential, Potential difference, Electromotive force has the same SI unit i.e Volt (V). Hence Electric flux is alike from others.
Apparent Power (S): It is defined as the product of r.m.s value of voltage (V) and current (1). It is denoted by S.
S = V/I Volt Ampere
Basic logic gates: Basic logic gates are the building blocks of digital circuits that perform logical operations such as AND, OR, and NOT, on the binary inputs. Basic gates are mainly used in the fabrication of digital systems and are called integrated circuits (ICs).
Derived logic gates: Derived logic gates arc those logic gates that perform logical operations on the binary inputs with the help of two or more basic logic gates. A combination of AND, OR, and NOT are called derived gates. NAND, NOR, XOR, and XNOR are such a combination of AND, OR, and NOT gates.
Exclusive OR (XOR) Gate
A gate that identifies the odd number of 1’s in the combination of the inputs is called the XOR gate. It is a functional combination of NOT, AND, and OR gates.