Susceptance is symbolized by the capital letter B. It is the reciprocal of AC reactance. Susceptance, like reactance, can be either capacitive or inductive. In the case of a magnetic field, the susceptance is inductive. In the case of an electric field, the susceptance is capacitive. Capacitive susceptance is symbolized BC and inductive susceptance is symbolized BL. In the case of a magnetic field, the susceptance is inductive. In the case of an electric field, the susceptance is capacitive. Inductive susceptance is assigned negative imaginary number values, and capacitive susceptance is assigned positive imaginary number values.
The formula for inductive susceptance is
The unit of Inductive susceptance is Siemen or Mho.
Copper loss is proportional to the square of load current. At half load, load current becomes half as voltage remains the same, so the copper loss will become (1/2)2 i.e 1/4 times of full load copper loss.
At full load copper Loss = I2R
At half load copper Loss = (I/2)2 × R = I2/4 × R
400 = I2/4 × R
I2R = 4 × 400
I2R = Full load copper Loss = 1600 W
Torque speed characteristic of induction motor
Motoring mode: 0 ≤ s ≤ 1
For this range of slip, the load resistance in the circuit is positive, i.e. torque developed is in the direction in which the rotor rotates.
In this region the value of slip lies between 0 to 11 i.e., slip is positive.
The motor rotates in the same direction as that of a rotating magnetic field.
At s = 0 (synchronous speed), the torque produced by the motor is zero because the induced voltage in the rotor is zero when N= Ns.
The torque increases as the slip increases while the air gap flux remains constant.
The torque-slip characteristic from no-load to somewhat beyond full-load is almost linear.
Generating mode: s <0
In this operating mode, the slip s is negative i.e., s < 0. The slip will be negative if and only if the rotor speed N is greater than the synchronous speed Ns (N> Ns). However, the rotor and R.M.F both rotate in the same direction.
In this region, the motor acts as a generator and return the power back to a.c. source.
Braking or plugging Mode: s > 1
In this region, the value of slip is greater than 1 and the rotor rotates in the opposite direction of the rotating magnetic field.
This is achieved by interchanging any two phases of the stator supply.
The shaded-pole motor is the original type of AC single-phase induction motor. Shaded pole-type single-phase induction motors are provided with shading rings on their poles which are the projected type of poles. The stator of such motors has projected poles like DC machines as shown in Fig. 5.7. The rotor is a squirrel cage type similar to that of split-phase-type motors. The poles are excited by giving a single-phase AC supply. A single-turn thick coil in the form of a ring called the shading ring is fitted on each side of every pole as shown. The portion of the poles where the shading ring is fitted is called the shaded portion, while the other portion is called the unshaded portion.
The shaded pole motor has the lowest starting torque as compared to the all single-phase induction motors.
In the capacitor start, single-phase induction motor the capacitor is connected in series with the starting auxiliary winding. In this manner, the current in the starting winding may be made to lead the line voltage. Since the running winding current lags the line voltage, the phase displacement between the two currents is made to approximately 90° on starting.
Placing the capacitor in the auxiliary winding circuit to produce a greater phase difference between the current in the main and the auxiliary windings. Due to greater phase difference capacitor Start motors have very high starting torque for a single-phase AC motor.