Hysteresis Loss = Kh × BM1.67 × f × v watts
Kh = Hysteresis constant depends upon the material
Bm = Maximum flux density
f = frequency
v = Volume of the core
Hence the hysteresis loss does not depend upon the ambient temperature.
Universal motors may be powered by either AC or DC power sources.
The universal motor is constructed in the same way as a series-wound DC motor. However, it is designed to operate with either AC or DC applied.
The series-wound motor is the only type of DC motor that will operate with AC applied.
The windings of shunt-wound motors have inductance values that are too high to allow the motor to function with AC applied.
The series-wound motors have windings that have low inductances (few turns of large diameter wire), and they, therefore, offer a low impedance to the flow of AC.
The universal motor is one type of AC motor that has concentrated or salient field windings. These field windings are similar to those of all DC motors.
The direction of the arrow represents the direction of the conventional current flow when the diode is forward biased.
In the capacitor start, single-phase induction motor the capacitor is connected in series with the starting auxiliary winding. In this manner, the current in the starting winding may be made to lead the line voltage. Since the running winding current lags the line voltage, the phase displacement between the two currents is made to approximately 90° on starting.
Placing the capacitor in the auxiliary winding circuit to produce a greater phase difference between the current in the main and the auxiliary windings. Due to greater phase difference capacitor Start motors have very high starting torque for a single-phase AC motor.
The ratio of luminous flux leaving the surface (Reflected Light) to the luminous flux incident on it (Incident Light) is known as the reflection factor.
Reflection Factor = Reflected light/Incident light
The value of the Reflection factor is always less than 1.