The amount of flux produced by the magnet indicates the strength of the magnet. The more the magnetizing force (MMF), the more is the flux produced. The more the opposition to the flux path (i.e., reluctance or magnetic resistance) less is the flux produced. This relationship is expressed as
Flux = MMF/ Reluctance
Reluctance is the opposition offered by the material in the flux path to the establishment of the flux. The reluctance in a magnetic circuit is similar to the resistance in an electric circuit. Reluctance is the inverse of permeance.
MMF = Flux/Permeance
The 2’s complement of the number (1010101)2 is found in two steps. First, convert the given number into its l’s complement.
1’s complement of a binary number is just an inversion of individual bits.
1’s complement of (1010101)2 is (0101010)2
To find 2’s complement of the number add one to the least significant bit (LSB). So
The excess-3 code for a given decimal number is determined by adding ‘3’ or “0011” to each decimal digit in the given number.
The emitter current (IE) of a transistor has two components such as base current (IB) and collector current (IC). The base current (IB) is about 2% of the emitter current (IE), but the collector current (Ia) is about 98% of the emitter current (IE).
∴ IE > IC > IB
IE = IB + IC